30 credits at level HE7
This module will provide an in-depth examination of the key policies and research practice which underpin the emerging study of victims, risk and the management of victim risk. The module will draw on cross disciplinary theory to explain why individuals become victims, their subsequent behaviour and their interaction with the Criminal Justice System. The module will also consider the range of methodologies used in victimology and the use and interpretation of victimisation rates and other statistics used to predict the risk of victimisation
Victims & Victimology: What are the origins of Victimology? Examples of research, policy and practices; academic victimology and victim advocacy approaches.
Ethnicity, Gender & Age: Who is the victim? Concepts of vulnerability, victim proneness & victim precipitation; lifestyle and routine activity theories.
Repeat Victimisation: Types of crime that exhibit repeat victimisation; focus on domestic violence, burglary studies.
Risk & Decision-making: Examines how risk decisions are made, the psychological processes involved, the formal tools used and the problems of risk assessment. Includes practical applications of risk assessment.
MAPPA/PPO: What is the remit and context of these policies, who is involved in the operational aspects and what improvements are necessary?
Managing risk in the community: What practical steps can be taken to manage risks posed by sex offenders, arsonists, violent offenders and others?
Terrorism: Is terrorism something we have to learn to live with and if so what can we do about it at a national and local level.
Victim Surveys: How can victimisation be measured? Examples of victim surveys and methodological analyses.
Impact of Victimisation: Characteristics of trauma syndromes; focus on sexual victimisation, inter-personal violence, stalking.
Preventing Victimisation: What services exist to cater for the needs and rights of victims? An assessment of the roles of statutory and voluntary organisations.
Restorative Justice: Examines the efficacy of victim & offender mediation schemes; the concept of ‘Re-integrative Shaming’; reparation orders; citizens’ panels.
This module will be delivered by a combination of lectures, workshops, tutorials and guided reading. WebCT will be used as an online support system and assessment tutorials will be used to ensure that students have direct access to tutors and can discuss the assessment requirements individually.
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Develop a critical understanding of the merits and implications of various approaches and methodologies to the study of victimisation and risk.||Be able to compare and contrast different approaches to the study of victimisation and risk and be able to identify approaches which have a proven track record of success in this area.|
|2.||Evaluate victimisation theory and empirical data in order to draw out implications for future policies to prevent victimisation and reduce risk.||Be able to critically evaluate the wide range of different theories related to victimisation and risk and use empirical data to identify future implications for victimisation and risk management policy.|
|3.||Have a critical awareness of the scale and scope of victimisation and risk management locally, nationally and internationally||
Be able to use different approaches and theories to increase understanding and awareness of the risk of victimisation locally, nationally and internationally.
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||Produce a critical evaluation of a recent peer reviewed paper relating to victimisation.||Undertake a case study of a client (either from own work setting or one provided) to provide a risk assessment and management plan for managing risk in the community.|
Before taking this module you must have successfully completed the following:
and/or be taking the following corequisite modules:
You cannot take this module if you are taking or have taken:
Best, J. (1999) Random Violence: how we talk about new crimes and new victims. London: Univ of California Press.
Craissati, J. (2004) Managing High Risk Sex Offenders in the Community – A Psychological Approach. Hove, Sussex: Brunner-Routledge.
Davies, P., Francis, P. & Greer, C. (2007) Victims, Crime & Society. London: Sage.
Davies, P., Francis, P. & Jupp, V. (2004) Victimization: Theory, Research & Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Denney, D. (2005) Risk & Society. London: Sage.
Dignan, J. (2005) Understanding Victims & Restorative Justice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Goodey, J. (2005) Victims and Victimology: research, policy and practice. Harlow: Longman.
HM Government, ‘The Prevent Strategy: A Guide for Local Partnerships in England. Stopping people becoming or supporting terrorists and violent extremists’. Available at:
Home Office & Dept of Health (1999) Managing Dangerous People with Severe Personality Disorder: Proposals for Policy Development. London: Home Office.
Hope, T. & Sparks, R. (2000) Crime, Risk & Insecurity: Law & Order in Everday Life & Political Discourse. Routledge.
Karmen, A. (2007) Crime Victims: An Introduction to Victimology, 6th ed. Belmont, Calif: Thomson Wadsworth.
Kelly, L. (1988) Surviving Sexual Violence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kemshall, H. (2003) Understanding risk in criminal justice. Open University Press.
Matravers, A. (2005) Sex Offenders in the Community: Managing and Reducing the Risks. Willan Publishing.
Mythen, C. & Walklate, S. (2006) Criminology and Terrorism: Which Thesis? Risk Society or Governmentality. British Journal of Criminology, 46 (3), 379-398.
Tarling, R, Budd, T. & Dowds, L. (2000) Victim and Witness Intimidation: findings from the British Crime Survey. London: Home Office, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.
Vertigans, P. & Sutton, P. (2006) The Role of Anti Terror Measures in the Development of Islamic Terror. International Journal of Humanities, 4 (4), 87-94.
Williams, B. (2005) Victims of Crime & Community Justice. London: Jessica Kingsley.
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