20 credits at level HE7
To equip students to work effectively as part of a product development team they need to have a broad understanding of the wide and extending range of materials and processes used in making an electronic product. Starting with the selection of raw materials and mechanical and electronic components, this module covers in some depth the fabrication of printed circuit boards and the manufacturing processes involved in board assembly and box build through to the final enclosure. Attention is given to the ways in which processes are controlled and quality ensured, to design aspects that influence manufacturability, and to the impact on the product of the choices made about circuit partitioning, manufacturing sequences, processes and materials.
Who can benefit?
Electronic system designers, circuit designers, production engineers, mechanical engineers and managers who need a broad picture relating to electronic manufacture, whether as current practitioners or newcomers to this field. The module can be studied on its own or as part of a programme leading to a formal qualification.
To develop student competencies in designing for product manufacture, and impart an informed awareness of materials and process issues.
Solder; solder paste; flux; ancillary materials.
Materials used in component manufacture and semiconductor packaging.
PCB laminates; conductors; solder resist; board finishes.
Material selection and its implications for manufacture.
Developments and trends in materials, and their impact on product design and manufacture.
Constructional, manufacturing and reliability aspects of representative components: semiconductors; passive components; interconnections; mechanical components.
Component formats and their implications for product design and manufacture.
Developments and trends in components, and their impact on product design and manufacture.
Fabrication sequences and processes; fabrication standards; specifying a board.
Copper distribution and balance; lay-up; plating issues; board flatness.
Aspects of board quality: storage and handling; test and inspection methods; reject causes; process control.
Design for Fabrication: design for board yield; materials selection; mistake-proofing.
Developments and trends in board fabrication methods, and their impact on product design and manufacture.
Board assembly and test
Solder assembly sequences and processes: printing; placement; reflow soldering; insertion; wave soldering; cleaning; intrusive reflow; manufacturing standards.
Aspects of assembly quality: storage and handling; test and inspection methods; reject causes; process control.
Design for Assembly: impact of component choice; component placement issues; design for selective soldering, wave soldering and double-sided reflow; design for rework.
Design for Test: fundamentals of test and repair; test sequence and coverage; relative costs of different test strategies; test jig design practice.
Developments and trends in assembly processes, and their impact on product design and manufacture.
Strategies and small-volume processes for new product introduction and prototyping.
Special-purpose materials and processes, such as the use of ceramic substrates, direct chip attach and flip-chip assembly.
Partitioning, assembly and encapsulation issues for hybrid microcircuits.
The overall system
System and product physical partitioning and interconnection.
The impact of interconnections and enclosures on product design and manufacture.
Internal and external interconnects (including optoelectronics)
Mechanical attachment techniques (including press-fit connectors and box build).
Design for mechanical assembly.
The module is expected to involve 200 hours learning time spread over 12 weeks. All study and assessment is carried out via the internet so there is no requirement to attend in person. The approach is substantially student-centred, with tutor support by email and telephone on a one-to-one basis, although peer discussion is encouraged. Typically the generality of a concept is introduced in the on-line material and the student is then directed to a variety of information sources to research and analyse the subject area further, reflect and draw appropriate conclusions. The use of self-assessment questions (SAQs) throughout the module reinforce the concepts and help students to monitor their progress and the effectiveness of their study. The module is assessed by three assignments.
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||be able to make recommendations based on a critical evaluation of the components used on a printed circuit assembly.||justify the appropriate selection of components to satisfy a representative specification.|
|2.||be able to make recommendations based on a critical evaluation of the properties of the board materials and the fabrication processes used to make the PCB for a printed circuit assembly.||justify the appropriate selection of PCB materials and fabrication processes to satisfy the specification for a representative assembly.|
|3.||be able to influence good practice in the areas of Design for Fabrication, Design for Assembly and Design for Test.||apply the insights given in the module into both recommended standards and methodologies for design for manufacture to the task of eliminating faults in a representative assembly.|
|4.||be able to formulate criteria for the appropriate choice of assembly materials and processes for manufacturing printed circuit assemblies.||evaluate the validity of the reasons for the selection of assembly materials and processes for specific target products, and make recommendations for changes that would improve process, quality and yield.|
|5.||be able to formulate criteria for the appropriate choice of technologies, partitioning, interconnection methods and assembly processes for manufacturing an electronic product in an enclosure.||evaluate the validity of the reasons for the selection of technologies, partitioning, interconnection methods and assembly processes for specific target products.|
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||Evaluate and make recommendations on the component, board materials and board fabrication issues that relate to a representative assembly.||Based on your analysis of the design faults in a specific assembly, report on ways to reduce the incidence of such faults.||For a completed electronic product or products, evaluate and report on the technologies, partitioning and interconnection methods chosen, and on the materials and processes used in assembly, making appropriate recommendations for improvement.|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
No restrictions apply.
Coombs, Coombs’ Printed Circuits Handbook, 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-071-35016-0
Harper, High Performance Printed Circuit Boards, McGraw-Hill, 2000, ISBN 0-07-026713-8
Lee, Reflow Soldering Processes and Troubleshooting, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002, ISBN 0-7506-7218-8
Manko, Solders and Soldering 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-071-34417-9
Shackelford, Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-130-11287-9
Tummala, Introduction to Microelectronics Packaging, McGraw-Hill, 2001, ISBN 0-071-37169-9
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