20 credits at level HE6
The aim of the module is:
•For students to identify their own personal development needs (PDP) in relation to the module.
•To apply basic principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics to a chosen condition and treatment regime
•To critically discuss applied therapeutics in relation to prescribing practice.
•To critique methods of assessing and monitoring effectiveness of treatment.
•To promote a reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice.
Legislation relating to range of medicines, items and appliances prescrible by non medical prescribers
Formulation of personal drug formulary (p-list)
Update on relevant aspects of basic and applied therapeutics
Clinical pharmacology update, including pharmaco-dynamics, pharmaco-kinetics,pharmaco-therapeutics
Basic principles of drug handling – absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Numeracy and drug calculations
Changes in physiology and drug response, for example the elderly, neonates, young children, pregnant or breast feeding women and ethnicity.
Adverse drug reactions and interactions
Pathophysiology of defined conditions to which prescribng practice relates.
Natural history and progression of defined conditions.
Impact of co-morbidities on prescribing and patient management
Selection of drug regimen
Prescribing unlicensed and 'off-label' Medicines
Prescribing of Controlled Drugs and ethical recommendations form Shipman Enquiry (Fourth Edition)
Principles and methods of monitoring
Principles and methods of patient monitoring
Chemical and biochemical methods for monitoring the treatment of the conditions relevant to own area of practice.
Physical examination skills relevant to the conditions for which prescribing practice will be developed.
Assessing responses to medicines against the objectives of the treatment plan or clinical management plan.
Patient compliance and concordance
Identifying and reporting adverse drug reactions
Development of porfolio, PDP and learning contracts
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, E-learning and Web-CT based materials.
Assessment strategies include:
a) Two examination papers.
b) A portfolio of evidence demonstrating achievement of the student’s own personal development needs and the learning outcomes for the module and CPD needs by utilising the relevant National Prescribing Centre’s competency frameworks for non medical prescribers (NPC, 2003a; NPC 2003b; NPC, 2004).
c) Completion of 12 days in practice and verification by designated medical supervisor of competent prescribing in own area of practice.
It is imperative that students are safe and effective prescribers. Any major failure to identify a serious problem or an answer that would cause a patient harm would result in overall failure
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Evaluate key pharmacological factors and principles affecting therapeutic interventions in relation to prescribing practice.||
a) Identify medicines / appliances and conditions relevant to your area of practice and formulate personal drug formulary (p-list).
b) Demonstrate knowledge of medicines and safe prescribing of medicines from p-list as identified in a).
c) Justify the decision-making process supporting prescribing.
d) Demonstrate the utilisation of knowledge of clinical pharmacology including the effects of co-morbidity to underpin safe prescribing.
|2.||Perform the relevant physical examination of patient with those conditions for which you may prescribe.||
a) Identify own learning needs in relation to physical examination skills and develop an action plan to address learning needs.
b) Be able to undertake relevant physical examinations competently, utilising clinical equipment/recording devices as appropriate,
verified as competent by an appropriate clinical assessor in practice.
|3.||Demonstrate competence to monitor response to therapy and modify treatments.||
a) Develop prescribing practice that is evidenced-based.
b) Be able to assess, review and evaluate patient care and monitor response and effectiveness of treatments.
c) Identify adverse reactions and report adverse reactions through appropriate channels.
d) Demonstrate achievement of the NPC competencies related to non medical prescribing, evidenced and verified in portfolio.
|4.||Demonstrate numeracy skills and accuracy when undertaking drug calculations||
a) Demonstrate numeracy by undertaking accurate drug calculations.
b) Write accurate prescriptions, including a prescription that demonstrates an accurate drug calculation.
|5.||Evaluate key pharmacological factors and principles affecting therapeutic interventions in relation to prescribing practice for children.||
a) Be able to undertake an accurate history and assessment of a child, having considered the legal, cognitive, emotional and physical differences between children and adults.
b) If working with children in practice, be able to undertake relevant physical examinations competently, utilising clinical equipment/recording devices appropriate for children, verified as competent by an appropriate clinical assessor in practice.
|6.||Demonstrate a reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice||
Reflect and evaluate own performance and skill development and need for CPD evidenced in portfolio
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||Examination paper consisting of Part i) Multiple choice / short answer examination paper (80% pass mark). Part ii) An essay question relating to own area of practice. (40% pass mark).||Numeracy examination paper consisting of Part i) Four questions relating to drug calculations (100% pass mark). Part ii) Written prescription involving a drug calculation (100% pass mark).||Completion of log demonstrating 12 days (90 hours) relevant prescribing experience in practice and verification as competent in prescribing practice by appropriate medical assessor. (Pass / Fail)||Completion of a portfolio of evidence demonstrating achievement of learning outcomes for the module and completion of a Clinical Assessment Tool, utilising the National Prescribing Centres outline Frameworks of competencies for non medical prescribers (NPC, 2003; NPC 2004). (Pass / Fail)|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
and/or be taking the following corequisite modules:
No restrictions apply.
Bickley, L. S, (2003) Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (8th Edition). Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins : Philadelphia.
Coben, D; Atere-Roberts, E. (2005) Calculations for Nursing and Healthcare (2nd edition). Palgrave Macmillan:New York
Courtenay, M., Griffiths, M. (2004) Independent and Supplementary Prescribing: An essential guide. The Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Dowie, J., Elstein, A. (1994) Professional Judgement A Reader In Clinical Decision Making. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Lapham, R. (2003) Drug Calculations for Nurses: a step by step approach. (2nd Edition). Arnold: London.
National Prescribing Centre. (2003a) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing: An outline framework to help nurse prescribers. Update 2003. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
National Prescribing Centre. (2003b) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing : An outline framework to help pharmacist supplementary prescribers. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
National Prescribing Centre. (2004) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing An outline framework to help allied health professional supplementary prescribers. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
Nursing and Midwifery Council (2006) Standards of Proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers. NMC :London.
Nowak, T. J. (1999) Essentials of pathophysiology : concepts and applications for health care professionals (2nd edition). WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Shulman, R; Montgomery, H; Ng, J; Keady, S. (2007) Surviving Prescribing: A Practical Guide. Remedica: London
Stevens, A., Gillam, S. (1998) Needs assessment: from theory to practice. British Medical Journal. 316: pp 1448 – 52.
Walker, R., Edwards, C. (Eds) (2002) Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (3rd edition). Churchill Livingstone : Edinburgh.
Wong, I.C. K. (1999) Pharmacovigilance resources in the United Kingdom. Pharmaceutical Journal. 263: pp 285-288.
Woolf, S., Grol, R., Hutchinson, A., Eccles, M., Grimshaw, J. (1999) Clinical Guidelines: Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. British Medical Journal. 318: pp 527-30.
www.bnf.org - British National Formulary Online
http://www.nursesaregreat.com/articles/drugcal.htm - Calculations
|Host Subject Group:||Health, Social and Community Studies|
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