20 credits at level HE6
The aim of the module is:
• For students to identify their own personal development needs (PDP) in relation to the module.
• To review applied therapeutics and evidenced based practice and methods of assessing and monitoring effectiveness of treatment.
• To develop relevant physical examination skills., and become familiar with the principles of patient monitoring, including equipment familiarisation
• To Promote a reflective approach to continuing professional development and audit of own prescribing practice
Legislation relating to range of medicines, items and appliances prescrible by non medical prescribers
Formulation of personal drug formulary (p-list)
Clinical pharmacology update; pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Review of drug calculations
Changes in physiology and drug response, for example the elderly, young, pregnant or breast feeding women and ethnicity
Adverse drug reactions and interactions
Pathophysiology of defined conditions to which prescribng practice relates.
Natural history and progression of defined conditions.
Impact of co-morbidities on prescribing and patient management
Selection and optimisation of drug regimen
Assessment, decision making and review
Communication and assessment of clients.
Physical examination skills relevant to the conditions for which prescribing practice will be developed.
Principles and methods of monitoring
Principles and methods of patient monitoring
Chemical and biochemical methods for monitoring the treatment of the conditions relevant to own area of practice.
Assessing responses to medicines against the objectives of the treatment plan or clinical management plan.
Patient / client concordance and adherence to medicines / treatments
Identifying and reporting adverse drug reactions
Prescribing in the public health context
Patient access to health care and medicines
Duty to patients and society
Use of medicines in populations and in the context of health priorities
Public health policies, for example the use of antibiotics, antivirals and vaccines
Inappropriate use of medicines including misuse, under and over‐use
Inappropriate prescribing, over and under‐prescribing
Evidence‐based practice and clinical governance
Local and professional clinical governance policies and procedures
Development and maintenance of professional knowledge and competence in relation to the condition(s) for which the pharmacist intends to prescribe.
The rationale for national and local guidelines, protocols, policies, decision support systems and formularies – understanding the implications of adherence to and deviation from such guidance
Prescribing in the context of the local health economy
Principles of evidence‐based practice and critical appraisal skills
Auditing, monitoring and evaluating prescribing practice
Risk assessment and risk management
Audit and systems monitoring
Analysis, reporting and learning from adverse events and near misses
Reflective practice and continuing professional development, support networks, role of self, other prescribers and organisation
Development of portfolio, PDP and learning contracts
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, E-learning and Moodle based materials.
Assessment strategies include:
a) Two examination papers.
b) A portfolio of evidence demonstrating achievement of the student’s own personal development needs and the learning outcomes for the module and CPD needs by utilising the relevant National Prescribing Centre’s competency frameworks for Pharmacist Prescribers (NPC, 2003; NPC 2006).
c) Completion of 12 days in practice and verification by designated medical supervisor of competent prescribing in own area of practice.
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, DVD and E-learning and Moodle® based materials.
The 200 hours notional time given to this module will be allocated as follows:
100 hours classroom / blended learning / directed study via e-learning - this will include taught sessions, group discussion, case studies, directed study via e-learning and tutorials.
45 hours in practice.
55 hours will be used and shared flexibly between work based learning opportunities, self directed study, assessment and portfolio preparation and the examinations.
It is imperative that students are safe and effective prescribers. Any major failure to identify a serious problem or an answer that would cause a patient harm would result in overall failure of the module. In addition, any breach of patient / client confidentiality will lead to a referral in academic work.
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Evaluate key pharmacological factors and principles affecting therapeutic interventions in relation to prescribing practice.||
a) Identify medicines / appliances and conditions relevant to your area of practice and formulate personal drug formulary (p-list).
b) Demonstrate knowledge of medicines and safe prescribing of medicines from p-list as identified in a).
c) Justify the decision-making process supporting prescribing.
d) Demonstrate the utilisation of knowledge of clinical pharmacology including the effects of co-morbidity to underpin safe prescribing.
|2.||Demonstrate competence of assessment / history taking to demonstrate safe independent prescribing practice.||
a) Select, apply and justify appropriate consultation / assessment tools.
b) Utilise a diverse range of communication skills in response to individual client / patent needs.
c) Evidence the importance of accurate record keeping.
d) Critically reflect on the decisions you have made in response to the evidence presented.
e) Complete an independent assessment of a patient in own area of practice, verified as competent by the supervising Designated Medical Practitioner.
f) Demonstrate achievement of the NPC competencies related to non medical prescribing, evidenced and verified in portfolio by completion of a reflective, clinical skills log relevant to own area of clinical practice, evidencing the completion of 12 x 7.5 hour days (90 hours) of supervised prescribing practice, verified as being competent by Designated Medical Practitioner.
|3.||Assess and perform the relevant physical examination of clients with those conditions for which you may prescribe.||
a) Identify own learning needs in relation to the assessment, clinical and physical examination of clients and develop a PDP and learning contract to address learning needs.
b) Be able to undertake assessment and relevant physical examinations competently, utilising clinical equipment/recording devices as appropriate,
verified as competent by an appropriate clinical assessor in practice.
|4.||Utilise common diagnostic aids and equipment relevant to own area of practice.||
a) Identify own learning needs in relation to the use of common diagnostic aids and/or equipment e.g. stethoscope, sphygmomanometer etc. relevant to own area of clinical practice.
b) Exhibit correct technique of clinical equipment/recording devices appropriate to the clinical condition
c) Complete clinical skills log appropriate for area of practice, verified as competent by relevant clinical assessor in practice
d) Reflect and evaluate own performance and skills development
|5.||Demonstrate competence to monitor response to therapy and modify treatments.||
a) Develop prescribing practice that is evidenced-based.
b) Be able to assess, review and evaluate patient care and monitor response and effectiveness of treatments.
c) Identify adverse reactions and report adverse reactions through appropriate channels.
|6.||Critically analyse the influences upon prescribing practice and demonstrate an understanding of the public health issues relating to medicines use.||
a) Articulate the influences upon the prescriber, both from the patient and other external influences.
b) Identify the public health issues relating to medicines prescribed in own area of clinical practice.
c)Evaluate the effectiveness of working with patients / clients and acheiving concordance / adherence.
d) Demonstrate the use of evidenced based practice and clinical governace to support prescribing decisions.
|7.||Demonstrate numeracy skills and accuracy when undertaking drug calculations and when writing prescriptions.||
a) Demonstrate numeracy by undertaking accurate drug calculations.
b) Write accurate prescriptions.
|8.||Demonstrate a reflective approach to Continuing Professional Development (CPD) relevant to prescribing practice.||
a) Reflect and evaluate own performance and skill devlopment.
b) Demonstrate how you will work within clinical governance frameworks that include audit of your own prescribing practice.
d) Devise an action plan as to how you intend to participate regularly in CPD for the six months immediately following completion of the Non Medical Prescribing Programme.
e) Identify how you will maintain a record of your CPD.
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||Pharmacology Exam (80% Pass mark)||Drug Calculation Paper (100% pass mark - Pass / Fail)||Portfolio evidence of acheiving learning outcomes for the programme and verification of prescribing competence by DMP Pass / Fail||Clinical Skills Log evidencing completion of 12 x 7.5 hour days (90 hours) of supervised prescribing practice.|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
and/or be taking the following corequisite modules:
You cannot take this module if you are taking or have taken:
Bickley, L. S, (2008) Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (10th Edition). Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins : Philadelphia.
British National Formulary Online. www.bnf.org
British National Formulary for Children Current edition.
Coben, D; Atere-Roberts, E. (2005) Calculations for Nursing and Healthcare (2nd edition). Palgrave Macmillan:New York
Courtenay, M., Griffiths, M. (2004) Independent and Supplementary Prescribing: An essential guide. The Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Dowie, J., Elstein, A. (1994) Professional Judgement A Reader In Clinical Decision Making. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Lymn, J; Bowskill, D; Bath-Hextall, F; Knaggs, R. (2010) An integrated approach to medical and non-medical prescribing. Wiley-Blackwell: West Sussex
National Prescribing Centre. (2006) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing: An outline framework to help pharmacist prescribers. Update 2006. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
Nowak, T. J. (1999) Essentials of pathophysiology : concepts and applications for health care professionals (2nd edition). WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Walker, R., Edwards, C. (Eds) (2002) Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (3rd edition). Churchill Livingstone : Edinburgh.
Wong, I.C. K. (1999) Pharmacovigilance resources in the United Kingdom. Pharmaceutical Journal. 263: pp 285-288.
Woolf, S., Grol, R., Hutchinson, A., Eccles, M., Grimshaw, J. (1999) Clinical Guidelines: Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. British Medical Journal. 318: pp 527-30.
www.bnf.org - British National Formulary Online
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