10 credits at level HE7
The aim of the module is:
•For students to identify their own personal development needs (PDP) in relation to the module to enable them to prescribe safely, appropriately and cost effectively.
•To enable the professional to prescribe within the current team context and differentiate between independent and supplementary prescribing roles.
•To develop skillful prescribing within a public health context.
•To promote evidence based prescribing
•For students to identify their own continuing professional development in relation to maintaining their competence in prescribing practice.
Prescribing in a Team Context
Policy context for independent and supplementary prescribing.
The framework for prescribing budgets and cost effective prescribing.
The professional relationship between independent and supplementary prescribers and those responsible for dispensing.
The role and functions of other team members.
Interface between multiple prescribers and the management of potential conflict.
Structure, content and interpretation of medical records/clinical notes including electronic health records.
Documentation, and the purpose of records in communicating prescribing decisions to other members of the team.
The responsibility of the supplementary prescriber in developing and delivering the clinical management plan.
Prescribing in the Public Health Context
Duty to patients and society
Public health policies, for example the use of antibiotics
Inappropriate use of medicines including misuse, under and over-use Inappropriate prescribing, over and under-prescribing
Evidence-based Practice and Clinical Governance in relation to Supplementary Prescribing
Principles of evidence-based practice and critical appraisal skills.
The rationale for national and local guidelines, protocols, policies, decision support systems and formularies – understanding the implications of adherence to and deviation from such guidance.
Supplementary prescribing in the context of the local health economy e.g. application of local priorities to supplementary prescribing, prescribing guidance produced by PCT prescribing forum, health economy Area Prescribing Committees and priorities for health improvement.
Reflective practice and continuing professional development – role of self and organisation.
Auditing, monitoring and evaluating prescribing practice.
Audit and systems monitoring.
Analysis and learning from medication errors and near misses
Risk assessment and risk management.
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, E-learning and Web-CT based materials.
Assessment strategies include:
Presentation of a case study.
A case study outlining the development and evaluation of prescribing role for a specific patient.
It is imperative that students are safe and effective prescribers. Any major failure to identify a serious problem or an answer that would cause a patient harm, would result in overall failure.
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Critically appraise factors impacting upon prescribing practice and demonstrate safe, appropriate and cost effective prescribing.||
a) Critically appraise and demonstrate the competencies required for safe, appropriate and cost effective prescribing in own practice area.
b) Monitor and review patients with awareness of own limitations.
c) Demonstrate perspective transformation in relation to familiar and new contexts of prescribing practice.
|2.||Select and critically evaluate the evidence base underpinning prescribing decisions.||
a) Demonstrate appropriate ability to critique evidence, including qualatative and quantitative data in research based literature, making a judgement on its quality and relevance for prescribing practice.
b) Critically analyse, synthesise and justify decisions based upon a variety of relevant information and evidence to support prescribing practice.
|3.||Critically analyse the roles and relationships of others involved in prescribing, supplying and administering medicines.||
a) Critically analyse and evaluate the role of the prescriber in the team context with particular reference to other roles and functions of team members
b) Analyse the benefits of participating in prescribing decision making as a multi-professional team member.
c) Justify prescribing decision making as a multi-professional team member.
d) Utilise effective communication skills and ability to manage potential conflict between team members.
|4.||Practice within a framework of professional accountability and responsibility in relation to own prescribing practice.||
a) Critically analyse and synthesise own professional accountability and responsibility as a supplementary prescriber to professional bodies, the patient, their employer, and personal responsibility to maintain own professional knowledge and competence.
b) Demonstrate creativity and ability to innovate and develop practice for the benefit of patients and the organisation.
c) Evaluate the importance of comprehensive, accurate shared records to promote safe practice in prescribing and rationalise and develop the concept of multi-disciplinary access to patient / client records in practice.
|5.||Demonstrate the development of enhanced levels of proficiency in the key skills appropriate to non-medical prescribing, including team skills, leadership, problem solving, numeracy, oral and written communication skills and information technology (IT).||
a) Undertake a self evaluation of knowledge and skills at start of programme.
b) Devise a PDP with action plans to enhance your knowledge and skills in realtion to prescribing practice.
c) Evaluate the transformation of prescribing practice by the development of knowledge and skills through course work and practice placements, evidenced in the programme portfolio.
d) Critically reflect on continuing professional development of prescribing practice
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||A 3000 word case study critically analysing the development and evaluation of own prescribing role for a specific patient.||A 15 minute tutor and group assessed, presentation of a prescribing case study.|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
and/or be taking the following corequisite modules:
No restrictions apply.
Collins, B., Hobbs, R. (1998) Prescribing in Primary Care. Oxford University Press : London.
Department of Health (1989) Crown 1 Report of the Advisory Group on Nurse Prescribing. DoH: London.
Department of Health (1999) Crown 2 Review of Prescribing, Supply and Administration of Medicines. DoH: London.
Department of Health. (1997). The new NHS: modern, dependable. Stationary Office: London. (Available from DH website http://www.dh.gov.uk/ )
Department of Health (2005) Supplementary Prescribing by Nurses, Pharmacists, Chiropodists / Podiatrists, Physiotherapists and radiographers within the NHS in England : A guide for implementation. DH: London. . (Available from DH website http://www.dh.gov.uk/ )
National Prescribing Centre. (2003) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing: An outline framework to help nurse prescribers. Update 2003. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
National Prescribing Centre. (2004) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing An outline framework to help allied health professional supplementary prescribers. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
National Prescribing Centre. (2006) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing : An outline framework to help pharmacist prescribers.Second Edition -October 2006 (Available from the NPC website http://www.npc.co.uk/ )
National Prescribing Centre (2007) A Competency Framework for Shared Decision Making with Patients: Achieving concordance for taking Medicines – First Edition – January 2007 – (Available from the NPC Website http://www.npc.co.uk/pdf/Concordant_Competency_Framework_2007.pdf )
Nursing and Midwifery Council (2006) Standards of Proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers. NMC :London.
Scriven, A., Orme, J. (eds.). (2001). Health promotion: professional perspectives (2nd ed.). Palgrave with association with Open University Press: Basingstoke.
Swage T (2000). Clinical Governance in Health Care Practice. Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford.
The Medicinal Products: Prescription by Nurses etc. Act. 1992.
Wong, I. C. K. (1999) Pharmacovigilance resources in the United Kingdom. Pharmaceutical Journal. 263: pp 285-288.
Woolf, S., Grol, R., Hutchinson, A., Eccles, M., Grimshaw. J. (1999) Clinical Guidelines: Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. British Medical Journal .318: pp 527-30.
http://bmj.com/ www.bnf.org http://cks.library.nhs.uk/home
http://www.nice.org.uk/ http://www.mhra.gov.uk/index.htm http://www.nhsbsa.nhs.uk/
|Host Subject Group:||Health, Social and Community Studies|
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