20 credits at level HE7
To apply the principles of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics to a chosen condition and treatment regime
•To critically analyse and discuss applied therapeutics in relation to prescribing practice.
•To critique methods of assessing and monitoring effectiveness of treatment.
To critique the influences upon prescribing practice
•To adopt a reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice.
Legislation relating to range of medicines, items and appliances prescrible by non medical prescribers
Formulation of personal drug formulary (p-list)
Update on relevant aspects of basic and applied therapeutics
Clinical pharmacology update, including pharmaco-dynamics, pharmaco-kinetics,pharmaco-therapeutics
Basic principles of drug handling – absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Numeracy and drug calculations
Changes in physiology and drug response, for example the elderly, neonates, young children, pregnant or breast feeding women and ethnicity.
Adverse drug reactions and interactions
Pathophysiology of defined conditions to which prescribng practice relates.
Natural history and progression of defined conditions.
Impact of co-morbidities on prescribing and patient management
Selection of drug regimen
Medicines regulatory framework including Marketing Authorisation, the prescribing and use of unlicensed medicines and “off-label” mediines.
Mixing of medicines
Prescribing of Controlled Drugs and ethical recommendations form Shipman Enquiry (Fourth Edition)
Use and prescribing of products for aesthetics e.g of botulinum toxin and related products - including the related ethical issues,documentation, legal aspects and the registrant’s accountability in relation to such products
Remote Assessment and Remote Prescribing
Delegating responsibility for administration of medicines
Concordance and medicines adherence
Identifying and reporting adverse drug reactions
External influences, at individual, local and national levels including current public health concerns.
Awareness of own personal attitude and its influence on prescribing practice.
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, E-learning and Moodle based materials.
The 200 hours notional time given to this module will be allocated as follows:
100 hours classroom / blended learning / directed study via e-learning - this will include taught sessions, group discussion, case studies, directed study via e-learning and tutorials.
45 hours in practice.
55 hours will be used and shared flexibly between work based learning opportunities, self directed study and exam and Poster preparation.
Assessment strategies include:
a) Two examination papers – One Drug Calculation Paper and One pharmacology paper consisting of 10 Multiple Choice questions and 10 short answer questions.
b) Poster presentation – An algorithm of a treatment plan
c) A portfolio of evidence demonstrating achievement of the student’s learning outcomes for the module and CPD needs by utilising the relevant National Prescribing Centre’s competency frameworks for Nurse Prescribers (NPC, 2003).
d) Completion of 12 days in practice and verification by designated medical supervisor of competent prescribing in own area of practice.
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Critically evaluate key pharmacological factors and principles affecting therapeutic interventions in relation to prescribing practice||
a) Identify medicines/appliances/products and conditions relevant to your area of practice and formulate a personal drug formulary (P-list)
b)Demonstrate knowledge of medicines and safe prescribing of medicines from your personal drug formulary (P-list)
c) Demonstrate the utilisation and application of knowledge of clinical pharmacology including the effects of co-morbidity to underpin safe prescribing
|2.||Critically evaluate key pharmacological factors and principles affecting therapeutic interventions in relation to prescribing practice for children.||
a) Demonstrate the ability to undertake an accurate history and assessment of a child, having considered the legal, cognitive, emotional and physical differences between children and adults.
b) If working with children in practice, be able to undertake relevant physical examinations competently using clinical equipment and recording devices appropriate for children and verified as competent by an appropriate clinical assessor in practice.
|3.||Demonstrate numeracy skills and accuracy when undertaking drug calculations||
a) Write prescriptions that demonstrate accurate drug calculations.
b) Complete drug calculation examination paper successfully (100% pass mark).
|4.||Critically appraise and evaluate the influences upon prescribing practice.||
a) Articulate and debate the influences upon the prescriber, both from the patient and other external influences including current public health concerns.
b) Evaluate the effectiveness of working with patients and achieving concordance/adherence.
c) Justify and demonstrate the application of evidence based practice and clinical governance to support prescribing decisions.
|5.||Demonstrate a clear understanding of the legislation relating to the prescribing and use of unlicensed medicines.||
a) Articulate knowledge of legislation relating to the use of unlicensed medicines,
b) Provide a rationale for the mixing of medicines and use of medicines ‘off license’
|6.||Demonstrate competence to prescribe in clinical practice.||
a) Using the learning Needs Analysis - Evaluate own performance, competency and skill development required for prescribing practice
b) Demonstrate achievement of prescribing competencies for clinical practice verified by Designated Medical Practitioner.
|7.||Demonstrate a reflective approach to continuing professional development of prescribing practice.||Reflect and evaluate the transformation of knowledge and skills and need for CPD evidenced in portfolio.|
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||a) Pharmacology Exam (80% pass mark) b) Drug Calculation paper (100% pass mark)||Poster presentation||Portfolio Pass / Fail||Clinical Log. verified as competent to prescribie in clinical practice by DMP|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
and/or be taking the following corequisite modules:
You cannot take this module if you are taking or have taken:
Bickley, L. S, (2008) Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (10th Edition). Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins : Philadelphia.
British National Formulary Online. www.bnf.org
British National Formulary for Children Current edition.
Coben, D; Atere-Roberts, E. (2005) Calculations for Nursing and Healthcare (2nd edition). Palgrave Macmillan:New York
Courtenay, M., Griffiths, M. (2004) Independent and Supplementary Prescribing: An essential guide. The Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Dowie, J., Elstein, A. (1994) Professional Judgement A Reader In Clinical Decision Making. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Lapham, R. (2009) Drug Calculations for Nurses: a step by step approach. (2nd Edition). Arnold: London.
Lymn, J; Bowskill, D; Bath-Hextall, F; Knaggs, R. (2010) An integrated approach to medical and non-medical prescribing. Wiley-Blackwell: West Sussex
National Prescribing Centre. (2003) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing: An outline framework to help nurse prescribers. Update 2003. (Available from the NPC website www.npc.co.uk )
Nursing and Midwifery Council (2006) Standards of Proficiency for nurse and midwife prescribers. NMC :London.
Nowak, T. J. (1999) Essentials of pathophysiology : concepts and applications for health care professionals (2nd edition). WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Stevens, A., Gillam, S. (1998) Needs assessment: from theory to practice. British Medical Journal. 316: pp 1448 – 52.
Waite, M; Keenan, J. (2010) CPD for Non-Medical Prescribers: A practical Guide. Wiley – Blackwell: Sussex.
Walker, R., Edwards, C. (Eds) (2002) Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics (3rd edition). Churchill Livingstone : Edinburgh.
Wong, I.C. K. (1999) Pharmacovigilance resources in the United Kingdom. Pharmaceutical Journal. 263: pp 285-288.
Woolf, S., Grol, R., Hutchinson, A., Eccles, M., Grimshaw, J. (1999) Clinical Guidelines: Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. British Medical Journal. 318: pp 527-30.
www.bnf.org - British National Formulary Online
http://www.nursesaregreat.com/articles/drugcal.htm - Drug Calculations
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