20 credits at level HE7
For students to identify their own personal development needs (PDP) in relation to the module to enable them to:
Prescribe safely, appropriately and cost effectively.
Examine and improve their consultation and decision making skills.
Explore the psychology and sociology of prescribing.
Recognise the significance of legislation relevant to non-medical prescribing.
Prescribe within the current team context and differentiate between independent and supplementary prescribing roles.
Develop awareness of prescribing within a public health context.
Facilitate evidence based prescribing
Identify their own continuing professional development in relation to maintaining their competence in prescribing practice.
Consultation and Decision-Making
A knowledge of the range of models of consultation and their application.
Principles of diagnosis; differential diagnoses and the concept of a working clinical diagnosis.
Accurate and effective communication and consultation with professionals, patients and their carers.
Building and maintaining an effective relationship with patients, parents and carers to promote concordance and by taking into account their values and beliefs.
Recognise own limitations and need for referral.
Development and documentation of a clinical management plan including referral to the independent prescriber and other professionals.
Management options including non-drug treatment.
Patient demand versus patient need including partnership in medicine taking, incorporating an awareness of cultural and ethnic needs.
Principles and methods of patient monitoring
Chemical and biochemical methods for monitoring the treatment of the conditions relevant to own area of practice.
Assessing responses to medicines against the objectives of the treatment plan or clinical management plan.
Legal, Policy, Professional and Ethical Aspects
Legal basis for prescribing, supply and administration of medicines
Prescribing for family members
Prescribing and dispensing
GPhc's Professional Standards of Conduct, Ethics and performance
Application of the law in practice, professional judgment, liability and indemnity
Maintenance of professional knowledge and competence in relation to the conditions for which the prescriber may prescribe.
Accountability and responsibility as a prescriber
Accountability and responsibility to the employer or commissioning organisation, awareness of local complaints procedures
Prescription pad security and procedures when pads are lost or stolen
Writing prescriptions; Use of Computerised Prescriptions
Record keeping, documentation and professional responsibility
Confidentiality, Caldicott and Data Protection
Suspicion, awareness and reporting of fraud or criminal behaviour, knowledge of reporting and ‘whistle blowing’ procedures; Acceptance of gifts and benefits
Learning and teaching will include a variety of methods including lectures, group discussions, case studies, DVD and E-learning and Moodle® based materials.
The 200 hours notional time given to this module will be allocated as follows:
100 hours classroom / blended learning / directed study via e-learning - this will include taught sessions, group discussion, case studies, directed study via e-learning and tutorials.
45 hours in practice.
55 hours will be used and shared flexibly between work based learning opportunities, self directed study, assessment preparation and OSCE examination.
It is imperative that students are safe and effective prescribers. Any major failure to identify a serious problem or an answer that would cause a patient harm would result in overall failure of the module. In addition, any breach of patient / client confidentiality will lead to a referral of academic work and referral to the Faculty’s ‘Fitness to Practice’ panel..
when you have successfully completed this module you will:
to demonstrate that you have achieved the learning outcome you will:
|1.||Integrate skills and knowledge to undertake a systematic assessment and consultation with patients, clients and carers.||
a) Critically discuss and demonstrate the ability to use effective communication and consultation skills to inform accurate assessment.
b) Undertake a thorough history including medication history, current medication, OTC, alternative and complementary health therapies, recreational / illicit medicines or products, allergy status and previous drug reactions, to inform diagnosis and/or potential differential diagnosis.
c) Articulate and justify a working diagnosis.
d) Demonstrate how patient’ / client wishes, values, choices, and ethnicity are addressed to achieve concordance / adherence to treatment.
e) Demonstrate how informed consent was obtained.
|2.||Demonstrate an in depth knowledge of the pathophysiology of the condition being treated and recognise the signs and symptoms of illness.||
a) Recognise the signs and symptoms of illness.
b) Differentiate between normal and abnormal physiology,
c) Accurately explain the condition to be treated.
d) Articulate and justify a working clinical diagnosis.
e) Provide a robust argument to support your prescribing decision.
|3.||Demonstrate safe, appropriate and cost effective prescribing.||
) Critically appraise factors impacting upon prescribing practice and demonstrate the competencies required for safe, appropriate and cost effective prescribing in own practice area.
b) Present a specific and well justified treatment plan in relation to diagnosis/condition.
c) Rationalise the prescribing of one or more medicines/products as appropriate.
d) Articulate risk assessment measures to ensure patient safety in the context of prescribing practice.
e) Monitor and review patients and have awareness of own limitations
f) Refer/ consult or seek guidance from other members of the health care team when appropriate f) Provide a clear rational for a prescription or when you decide not to prescribe
g) Advise patients/clients of the effects and risks associated with treatments.
h) Consider relevant lifestyle health promotion advice or non drug treatment
i) Reflect and evaluate own performance in relation to required standards and competencies for prescribing practice
|4.||Critically appraise and utilise a variety of information and evidence to support decision making within prescribing practice.||Critically analyse and justify decisions based upon a variety of relevant up to date information and evidence to support prescribing practice.|
|5.||Critically appraise the legal, professional and ethical frameworks relevant to the practice of prescribing.||
a) Undertake prescribing within the current legislative framework and professional GPhC standards of conduct, ethics and performance.
b) Critically analyse own professional accountability and responsibility as a prescriber to professional body, the patient/client and your employer.
c) Critically compare and contrast the concepts of supplementary and independent prescribing
d) Write accurate prescriptions that conform to the legal requirements.
e) Understands the legal and professional framework for remote prescribing
f) Create comprehensive, accurate shared records to ensure safe practice in prescribing and rationalise the concept of multi-disciplinary access to patient/client records in practice
|6.||Critically analyse the roles and relationships of others involved in prescribing, supplying and administering medicines.||
a)Critically analyse and evaluate the role of the prescriber in the team context with particular reference to other roles and functions of team members
b) Analyse the benefits of participating in prescribing decision making as a multi-professional team member
c) Utilise effective communication skills and manage potential conflict between team members.
|7.||Develop, appraise and utilise a Clinical Management Plan within the context of supplementary prescribing||Devise and critique the development of a CMP within the context of a supplementary prescribing partnership.|
Your achievement of the learning outcomes for this module will be tested as follows:
|Description||3000 word case study||Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) Pass / Fail||Portfolio of Evidence Pass / Fail|
There are no prerequisites for this module.
No restrictions apply.
Bickley, L. S, (2008) Bates’ Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking (9th Edition). Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins : Philadelphia.
Courtenay, M., Griffiths, M. (2004) Independent and Supplementary Prescribing: An essential guide. The Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Dowie, J., Elstein, A. (1994) Professional Judgement A Reader In Clinical Decision Making. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Edwards M., (2009) Communication Skills for Nurses: A practical guide on how to achieve successful consultations. Quay Books.
Ellis R, Kenworthy N, Gates B. (2003) Interpersonal communication in nursing: theory and practice. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Fraser, R. (1999) The consultation. In Fraser, R. (ed.) Clinical Method A General Practice Approach (3rd edition). Butterworth Heinemann: Oxford.
Gask, L., Usherwood, T. (2002). ABC of psychological medicine: The consultation. BMJ. 324: pp 1567-1569.
General Pharmaceutical Council (2010) Standards of Conduct, Ethics and Performance. General Pharmaceutical Council: London.
Lymn, J; Bowskill, D; Bath-Hextall, F; Knaggs, R. (2010) An integrated approach to medical and non-medical prescribing. Wiley-Blackwell: West Sussex
National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2009) Medicines Adherence. NICE: London.
National Prescribing Centre. (2006) Maintaining Competency in Prescribing: An outline framework to help pharmacist prescribers. (Available from the NPC website http://www.npc.co.uk/ )
Pendleton D. (2003) The new consultation: developing doctor-patient communication. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Thompson, C., Dowding, D. (2002) Clinical Decision Making and Judgement in Nursing. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Whittlesea C. Walker R. (2007) Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
|Host Subject Group:||Health Studies|
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